Infection Prevention and Control Issues in the Environment of Care, 4th Ed
3 Star
U.S. Standards
International Standards

Infection Prevention and Control Issues in the Environment of Care, 4th Edition

Understand the intersection of infection prevention and control with the environment of care, and how to collaborate and improve patient safety in infection prevention and control.

3 Star Rating from Doody’s Book Review!

Release Date: December 15, 2019. 234 pages. 

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Product Description

Product Description

Approximately 1 in 30 hospital patients develops a health care–associated infection (HAI) on any given day, and about 70,000 individuals die as a direct or indirect result of such infections each year. And the impact goes beyond hospitals and even beyond health care—these infections carry a significant financial burden, especially in low- and middle-income nations. In the United States, treating patients who develop HAIs costs billions of dollars annually.
These stark facts underscore the need for a strong and consistent infection prevention and control program in every type of health care setting. Because an organization’s ability to prevent and control infection is inextricably linked to its physical environment, a thoughtfully managed environment is a crucial piece in the infection prevention and control puzzle. 
The fourth edition of the best-selling Infection Control and Prevention Issues in the Environment of Care is designed to help infection preventionists, other infection prevention and control practitioners, and physical environment professionals collaborate to design, improve, and manage an infection prevention and control program that will protect patients, staff, and visitors from the threat of infection. This edition explores the keys to maintainting a safe, infection-free environment, which includes reducing and controlling environmental hazards and risks. It examines various infection risks, both in the United States and abroad, that can be minimized or eradicated through proper management of the physical environment. Topics new to the fourth edition include infection prevention and control and environment of care components of the compounding pharmacy, fogging for room decontamination, and establishing water management programs that are environmentally sustainable, among others.
Key Topics:
Joint Commission and Joint Commission International standards for infection prevention and control, related standards for the physical environment and emergency management, and infection-related patient safety goals
The human element of infection prevention and control efforts—from high-level leadership to frontline staff, patients, and visitors—in such areas as hand hygiene, sharps management, and staff training
Infection prevention and control considerations before, during, and after a construction project, including risk assessments
Reprocessing medical/surgical items, including what types of items need to be reprocessed, the role of different departments in reprocessing, and alternative equipment maintenance programs
The impact of utility and water distribution and management systems on infection control
The importance of addressing infection control in emergency management plans to manage risks during emergencies
Performance improvement and measuring infection control in the physical environment
Guidelines, requirements, specifications, and recommendations for infection prevention and control in the physical environment
Key Features: 
Practical tips and strategies to improve infection prevention and control programs
Advice for how environment of care and infection control professionals can collaborate
Case studies profiling infection control plans and projects that have proven effective in health care facilities
Useful tools and checklists to help health care organizations assess and address infection control risks in the care environment
Mock tracer scenarios and questions to identify infection risks and monitor compliance
Helpful sidebars guide organizations in assessing compliance with Joint Commission/Joint Commission International standards and other guidelines and requirements, explore the pros and cons of various infection control approaches, find resources for additional guidance on infection control issues, and more
Figures that break down complex information in a visual, easy-to-understand format
Standards: Infection Prevention and Control (IC); Environment of Care (EC); Emergency Management (EM)
International standards for Prevention and Control of Infections (PCI) and Facility Management and Safety (FMS)
Setting: All settings
Key Audience: Infection preventionists, infection prevention and control program leaders, facility managers, environment of care staff, housekeeping 
Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Chapter 1

The Connection: Infection Control and the Physical Environment

  • Infection Control Standards and the Infection Control Program
    • Planning for the Infection Control Program
    • Implementation of the Infection Control Plan
    • Evaluation and Improvement of the Infection Control Plan
  • Infection Control and Standards Related to the Physical Environment
    • Standards for Demolition, Renovation, and/or Construction
    • Standards for Medical Equipment and Utility Systems
    • Standards for Hazardous Materials and Waste
    • Standards for Emergency Power Sources
    • Standards for a Safe and Functional Environment
  • Infection Control and Patient Safety Goals
    • Patient Safety Goals and Evidence-Based Practices
    • Patient Safety Goals, CLABSI, and CAUTI
  • Collaboration Among Infection Control and Environmental Professionals
    • A Multidisciplinary Infection Control Team
    • Typical Collaborative Relationships
    • A Common Understanding: Infectious Organisms
  • Environmental Tours for Infection Control
    • Elements of the Environmental Tour
  • Tracers for Infection Control
    • Tracers to Evaluate and Assist
    • Infection Control System Tracer
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Tools
    • Guidelines & Requirements (IC Standards)
    • Guidelines & Requirements (EC Standards)
    • Case Study: Infection Control Issues in Opoid Treatment Facilities (PEER Services, Evanston, Illinois)
    • Infection Control Checklist for Environmental Tours
    • Tracer: Sample Scenario: Infection Control System Tracer

Chapter 2

The Human Element: Staff and Infection Control Compliance

  • Collaboration Made Easier
    • Collaboration with Leadership Support
    • Collaboration Over Time and Across Teams
  • Human Factors and Hand Hygiene
    • Human Factors Barriers to Hand Hygiene Practice
    • Insufficient Time Spent in Hand Hygiene
    • Delayed Feedback on Hand Hygiene
    • Overcoming the Human Factors Barriers to Hand Hygiene
    • Targeted Solutions Tool for Hand Hygiene
    • Environmental Input to Hand Hygiene Approaches
  • Human Error and Sharps Management
    • Sharps Injury Prevention Program
    • Logging and Reporting Sharps Injuries
    • Safety Training for Sharps
    • Sharps Disposal Containers
  • Human Nature and Staff Training and Competency
    • Multidisciplinary Team Approach
    • Basic Education on Infection Control
    • Collaborative Orientation on Infection Control
    • Infection Control Training for Contract Staff
    • Infection Control Competency
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Tools
    • Guidelines & Requirements: Comparison of US CDC and WHO Hand Hygiene Guidelines
    • Checklist for Environmental-Related Hand Hygiene Elements
    • Guidelines & Requirements: Life Safety Standards for Alcohol-Based Hand Rub Dispensers
    • Case Study: Reducing Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Through Sharps Management (Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio)
    • Sharps Injury Log
    • Sharps Risk Assessment Questionnaire
    • Guidelines & Requirements: US NIOSH Performance Criteria for Sharps Disposal Containers

Chapter 3

Construction Projects: Infection Control Considerations

  • Infection Control Regulations for Construction Projects
    • FGI Guidelines
    • Other Infection Control and Construction Guidelines
  • Construction Project Collaboration
    • Executive Project Team
    • Expert Input
    • Scope of Infection Control Practitioner Involvement
  • Design Elements for Infection Control
    • Design Elements for Clinical and Ancillary Rooms
    • Design Elements Posing Challenges for Infection Control
    • Design Elements for Infection Control and Specific Areas
  • Sustainable Design and Infection Control
    • Maximizing Environmental and Infection Control Goals
  • Infection Control Before Construction
    • Risk Assessments
    • Project Responsibility and Accountability
    • Worker Education and Safety
    • Safe Airflow
    • Preconstruction Checklists for Infection Control
  • Infection Control During Construction
    • Monitoring Construction Zone Materials
    • Air and Water Samples
    • Common Construction-Related Contaminants
  • Infection Control After Construction
    • Postconstruction Agreements
    • Pre-Occupancy Walkthrough
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Tools
    • Guidelines & Requirements: Sample of Key Changes in the 2018 FGI Guidelines
    • Resources: Online Guidelines for Infection Control and Construction
    • Resources: Online Information on Sustainable Design
    • Infection Control Risk Assessment (ICRA) Matrix
    • Specifications & Recommendations: Engineered Specifications for Positive- and Negative-Pressure Rooms
    • Infection Control Checklist for Construction Projects
    • Case Study: Infection Control During Infrastructure Repairs in Semirestricted Areas (NewYork Presbyterian Allen Hospital, New York)

Chapter 4

Medical Equipment: Reprocessing for Infection Control

  • A Systematic Approach to Reprocessing
    • A Reprocessing Policy
    • The Spaulding System
    • Cleaning Medical/Surgical Items
    • Disinfecting Medical/Surgical Items
    • Sterilizing Medical/Surgical Items
  • Monitoring Reprocessing
    • Sterilizing: Mechanical Indicators
    • Sterilizing: Chemical Indicators
    • Sterilizing: Biological Indicators
    • Sterilizer Maintenance
    • Monitoring for Policy Compliance
  • Central Processing
    • Location and Areas of Central Processing
    • Packaging and Inspecting
    • Storage and Transport
    • Surgical Services Department
    • Central Processing Staff Education and Training
  • Biomedical Engineering
    • Infection Risk in Biomedical Engineering
    • Biomedical Staff Education and Training
  • Alternative Equipment Maintenance (AEM) and Reprocessing Equipment
    • AEM Restrictions
  • Collaboration in Reproceessing
  • Reproceessing Single-Use Devices (SUDs)
    • Regulations Regarding SUDs
  • Reprocessing Endoscopes
    • Standards for Reprocessing Endoscopes
    • Addressing Endoscope Reprocessing Challenges
  • Conclusion
  • Resources
  • Tools
    • Resources: Organizations to Consult in Developing a Reprocessing Policy
    • Specifications & Recommendations: Spectrum of Activity Achieved by the Main Disinfectants
    • Case Study: Infection Control Risks and Point-of-Care Testing (Stanford Children’s Hospital, Stanford, California)
    • Specification & Recommendation: Advantages and Disadvantages of Various Sterilization Methods
    • Specifications & Recommendations: Level of Reprocessing Required for Medical/Surgical Items
    • Specifications & Recommendations: Protocol for Investigating Exposure Due to Disinfection or Sterilization Failure
    • Specifications & Recommendations: AAMI Recommendations for Reprocessing Staff Competency
    • Specifications & Recommendations: SUDs and Repocessing for Transmissable Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) Precautions
    • Sample Checklist for Reprocessing Endoscopes

Chapter 5

Utility Systems: Infection Control Concerns

  • Infection Control Regulations for Utility Systems
    • Infection Control in the Utility Systems Plan
  • Infection Control and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) Systems
    • HVAC Systems Variable:Pressure Relationships
    • HVAC Systems Variable: Air Change Rates
      • HVAC Systems Variable: Filtration
      • Filtration for fungi
  • Infection Control and HVAC Systems Maintenance
    • HVAC Systems Maintenance Tasks
    • AEM for Utility Systems
  • Other Options: New Technologies and Sustainable Approaches
    • Effective and Economical Future Options
    • Environmentally Sustainable Options
  • Infection Control and Water Distribution Systems
    • Preventing Waterborne Pathogens from Colonizing
    • Disinfecting Water
  • Legionella
    • Surveillance for Legionnaire’s Disease Outbreaks
    • Prevention Methods for Legionnaire’s Disease Outbreaks
    • Routine Sampling for Legionella
    • Tracing for Legionella
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Tools
    • Specifications & Recommendations: HVAC and UVGI to Control Spread of Tuberculosis Infection
    • Specifications & Recommendations: Sick Building Syndrome
    • Specifications & Recommendations: Areas with Special Ventilation Requirements
    • Indoor Air-Quality Maintenance Checklist
    • Examples & Illustrations: Water-Linked Infection Outbreaks in Health Care Organizations
    • Examples & Illustrations: Interventions for Waterborne Pathogens in a Health Care Facility
    • Specifications & Recommendations: What Every Clinician Needs to Know About Legionnaire’s Disease
    • Tracer: Sample Scenario: Infection Control System Tracer

Chapter 6

Environmental Services and Medical Waste Disposal: Infection Control Issues

  • Housekeeping and Infection Control
    • Basic Cleaning Methods and Materials
    • Choosing the Right Cleaning Product
    • Challenges of Cleaning Patient Rooms
    • Protecting Housekeeping Staff
    • Houskeeping Hotspots
  • Laundry Operations and Infection Control
    • Laundry Sorting and Transporting
    • Protecting Laundry Staff
    • Policies and Procedures for the Laundry Operations
  • Regulated Medical Waste Disposal and Infection Control
    • Categories of Regulated Medical Waste
    • Treatment and Disposal of Regulated Medical Waste
    • Ebola-Contaminated Waste
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Tools
    • Checklist for Housekeeping Infection Control
    • Resources: US EPA Registered Disinfectants
    • Case Study: Clean 4 You Promise Package for Environmental Cleaning (Piedmont Healthcare, Atlanta, Georgia)
    • Specifications & Recommendations: US CDC, NIOSH, and OSHA Laundry Practices
    • Guidelines & Requirements: Healthcare Laundry Accrediation Council: Sample Standards
    • Advantages & Disadvantages: Treatment Methods for Regulated Medical Waste
    • Specifications & Recommendations: Recommendations for Disposal of Ebola-Contaminated Waste

Chapter 7

Emergency Management: Infection Control for Disasters

  • The Emergency Operations/Management Plan (EOP/EMP)
    • The Four Phases of Emergency Management
    • Surge Capacity
    • The Hazard Vulnerability Analysis
    • Recommendations for Environmental Leaders
  • Infectious Patient Surges
    • Communication and Infectious Patient Surges
    • Managing a Surge of Infectious Patients
    • Managing Epidemics
  • Environmental Considerations for Infectious Disease Outbreaks
    • Isolation Rooms and Anterooms for Infectious Disease Outbreaks
    • Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for Infectious Disease Outbreaks
    • Cleaning for Infectious Disease Outbreaks
    • Infectious Waste from Infectious Disease Outbreaks
  • Decontamination
    • Victim Decontamination Program
    • Decontamination Incidents
    • Triage for Decontamination
    • Decontaminationa and Equipment
  • Decontamination Facilities
    • Outdoor Decontamination Facilities
    • Indoor Decontamination Facilities
    • Additional Decontamination Facilities Issues
    • Decontamination Team
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Tools
    • Hazard Vulnerability Analysis
    • Organization Assessment for Influenza Preparedness
    • Case Study: Resuming Service After Blackwater Flooding (Thammasat University Hospital, Pathum Thani, Thailand)

Chapter 8

Performance Improvement: Measuring Infection Control in the Physical Environment

  • A Multidisciplinary Team Approach
    • Performance Improvement Team Tasks
    • Team Communication and Collaboration
  • What to Measure
    • Outcome Measures and Process Measures
  • Collecting Data
    • Environmental Rounds
    • Employee Interviews
    • Intervention Responses and Follow-Up
  • Using Data Tools to Improve Infection Control
    • Data Displays: Performance Data on Competency Assessments
    • Using Data to Set Target Rates
  • US CDC Performance Measurement Recommendations
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Tools
    • Case Study: Using Data Tools and Analysis to Decrease CAUTIs (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas)
    • Check Sheet: Six-Month Employee Injury Report
    • Performance Improvement Tool Selection Matrix
    • Example & Illustrations: Sample Bar Chart: Posttest Scores for Infection Transmission Education
    • Examples & Illustrations: Sample Run Chart: Effectivenss of Training in Decontamination Procedures


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